How long will my Birm filter last?

A birm filter will usually last up to ten years with a yearly service,However within the ten years we would expect to have to change the media inside the vessel.The frequency of changing the media is totally dependant upon the incoming levels of iron and manganese.

How long is the guarantee on my Birm filter?

If you purchase your birm water filter from us all working parts are fully guaranteed for one year.

Do I need my Birm filter serviced?

It is usual to have a service contract with the company you brought the birm filter off.This company should inspect the water quality every year to ensure that the filter is working correctly.Please contact our service department for further details.

What incoming water parameters are required for the birm filter to work?

No hydrogen sulphide present.

Organic matter not to exceed 4-5 ppm as indicated by the oxygen consumed value.

Oil must not be present.

A dissolved oxygen content of at least 15% of the iron. (Example Iron = 10ppm.

Dissolved Oxygen = 1.5 ppm or more).

A pH of 6.5 or higher.


The correction of waters having a pH of less than 6.5 can be accomplished by several methods. Aeration, the use of Corosex “F” (CLACK neutralising method), or the addition of chemicals, such as soda are examples of common methods frequently used. A combination of the above methods is often used, depending on the amount of correction desired. The dissolved oxygen content of a water supply is raised by proper separation.
When rain falls the water has a naturally aggressive slightly acidic nature.This water then dissolves chalk and or metallic deposits present in the local rock strata which leads to contamination of the water.

This in turn results in ground and borehole water containing a number of elements that would not normally be present in mains water supplies. These contaminants such as iron and manganese can then cause problems when the water is put in to a system.

Acidic water results in corrosion of pipework, heating cylinders and other auxillary equipment.

Any iron or manganese present will result in poor tasting water and will also stain items such as baths or sinks.

Any ph valued water of less than 7 is considered to be acidic, and corrosion will accelerate between 6.5 with levels below 6 considered very aggressive.
It is usually difficult to remove iron and manganese from acidic water so it is usual to raise the ph in any system before treatment.

The simplest and most economic way to raise the ph in a water system is to install a ph correction filter where the water flows through a pressure vessel full of a ph correcting media such as magnodol.

The magnadol has a fixed dissolving rate and will neutralise water as it is passed through.

Ph correction filters will need periodically refilling with the neutralising agent and systems are sized with this in mind, It is expected that a ph correction system would need refilling around once per year.
To treat waters that are basically pure and otherwise clean a basic upflow system may be all that is required.
For water with iron and manganese fouling or turbidity an automatic backwashing unit would be required to remove accumulated debris within the system.

Water with a ph below 5 is uncommon and would not be treatable with this system.

How Water Filters Operate 

Almost all water filters operate through transferring water via a filtration system eliminating or neutralising pollutants.

Physical barrier filters eradicate suspended contaminants like mud, silt, sand or rust. Physical water filters are measured by microns. The lower the micron number, the more varieties of particles the filter can remove.

Chemical treatments are able to eradicate or neutralise damaging contaminants. Dependent upon the kind of contaminant, the water filter elements can incorporate activated charcoal, copper or zinc.

Ultraviolet is able to remove bacteria, viruses in addition to pathogens inside of water. The ultraviolet light is often located within a container where water is tackled either while in storage or is run all the way through an ultraviolet container.

Water Filter Types

You’ll find many different types of water filters ranging from carbon block, reverse osmosis through to to ultraviolet treatment options.

With Carbon Block water filters water is forced through the microscopic holes within the densely compacted carbon block. This type of merged mechanised purification, electrokinetic adsorption, as well as physical/chemical adsorption assist with the elimination of chlorine in addition to numerous impurities. Carbon block water filtration techniques require no electrical power, and do not require salt or silver to be added into the water.

Activated Carbon will help eliminate chlorine, however, activated carbon filters aren’t considered to be proficient for decreasing contaminants.

Reverse Osmosis functions by driving water through semi-permeable membrane which is built to allow individual water molecules to pass, whilst rejecting contaminants. Reverse osmosis membranes also allow oxygen to pass through the membrane layer.

Ultraviolet Treatment involves subjecting water to Ultraviolet radiation.This process is extremely effective at eliminating a vast amount of bacterial pollutants.

If you require advise regarding the best filtration methods to suit your requirements then please contact Industrial Water Equipment.

Reverse Osmosis Water Filtration

Reverse Osmosis for the use within the filtration of water has been in widely available for many years. The original concept for reverse osmosis filtration was for the desalination of seawater, however when the potential for reverse osmosis filtration was recognised as a very effective method for the filtration of a wide variety of water contaminants reverse osmosis systems started to become commercially developed for many more purification uses. Reverse osmosis is now widely regarded as a practical, inexpensive alternative to other more widely implemented water filtration techniques.

Reverse osmosis works by filtration of liquid through a semi-permeable membrane, basically the opposite of a biological osmosis process of water, hence the term (reverse osmosis). Osmosis as a biological process moves water through a weak saline solution to a stronger saline solution, gradually equalising the solution, whenever a semi-permeable membrane layer divides both solutions. When this process is reversed, water is forced to transfer from the stronger saline solution to a weaker solution, once again via a semi-permeable membrane, the membrane is effective at obstructing the passing of particles. The outcome regarding filtration of seawater is desalinated water on one part of the membrane layer and a saline solution on the opposite side. Reverse osmosis can also be utilised as a filtration method for drinking water.

Advantages of Reverse Osmosis filtration

Reverse osmosis is an excellent water purification treatment whenever mineral-free water is the required end product. Most minerals within water i.e iron, manganese, calcium etc are typically larger in physical form than water molecules and as such are held within the membrane and stripped away from the water. Reverse osmosis also has the ability to be able to eliminate many chemical compounds also including fluoride.

Should a water filter be used within a domestic household?

This is a tough question to answer, Water treatment companies have to produce household drinking water to certain standards, however in order for companies to achieve drinkable water many numerous chemicals have to be added. So although water coming into your house is drinkable, all water would benefit by filtration at the very least in terms of taste and odour.

What chemicals and toxins can be found within water?

Chemicals found within water can be many and varied. Where water is supplied from rivers, various organic solvents can be discovered and leech there way into water from industrial water processes. Many pesticides may find there way into water from the agricultural industry also, along with this some areas the UK have excessive levels of nitrate and traces of heavy metals such as lead and zinc can also be discovered within water.

Would a water filter benefit me?

Household water within the UK has to be produced to certain standards as regulated by the WHO, however, although guidelines are in place the use of a water filter will aid in the removal of any chemicals that may be present.

What is the best water filter to use for a household application.

The majority of domestic water filters make use of carbon to filter the water, such as the common jug type water filters, carbon will aid in the removal chemicals within water such as calcium carbonate.

Reverse osmosis water filters are a more efficient filter when compared to carbon block filters. Reverse Osmosis involves forcing water through a fine membrane, leading to an extremely pure water as the end product.

Industrial Water Filtration

As with domestic water filtration, on an industrial scale there are many varied filtration methods available. See our Water Filters page.

Granular Activated Carbon

A form of activated carbon with a surface area that absorbs many toxic compounds. Activated carbon is commonly used for treatment of water to remove organic compounds or taste and odour control.

Reverse Osmosis

An identical process as domestic reverse osmosis only on a much bigger scale. Reverse osmosis is the most comprehensive industrial water treatment method available.

You will find hundreds and maybe thousands of microorganism varieties that people face within day-to-day activities. The majority are safe, a number of them are advantageous however others are fatal. in the early 1920s, the main bacteria worry was bacillus, that causes typhoid, more of late, E.coli as well as cryptosporidium have got notoriety.

These two microorganisms originate from human and animal waste materials and in some cases can be fatal to individuals with weak natural defences, in addition to youngsters and senior citizens. These two microorganisms have already been discovered within our drinking water supplies. In the early 90’s cryptosporidium was discovered within drinking water in milwaukee and triggered health issues to almost half a million residents, along with an estimated 100 fatalities.

Even though city and county drinking water supply companies pay great attention towards the treatment of water, additional precautions are a significant technique to safeguard from damaging bacteria along with other possibly damaging chemical substances found within drinking water supplies. For this reason the point-of-use water filter industry is continuing to grow into a massive industry.

Activated carbon, due to the fact that it has a very large surface area, is among the most widely used medias within these types of filters and treats an array of organics found in water by way of surface adsorption. To stop bacteria development within Point of use filters silver ions are used to impregnate the carbon filters. Silver is widely used as a method to prevent bacterial development. Although small amounts of silver is used in this method, questions remain about silvers ability to leach into water.

Presently there is increased attention on nanosilver products that are being employed within carbon filtration. Scientific research has proven that nanosilver is actually toxic and may trigger damage in completely new ways.

Currently there are studies being performed on silver impregnated carbon in the treatment of bacterial growth. In February 1992, it was determined that following a months usage, the silver impregnated activated carbon filter had virtually lost all of its effects on barring bacterial development.

With the issues associated with how effectively silver impregnated carbons work, combined with the increase in the cost of silver, new antimicrobial materials are appearing as a less hazardous, more efficient alternative.

Water filters for domestic use typically fall into 2 distinct categories

Point of entry units (POE).

This type of unit treats the incoming water supply before distribution throughout the household.

Point of Use (POU).

These units typically range from under the sink type filters, tap filters etc. filter pitchers), faucet filters, and under-the-sink units. Some filters use more than one kind of filtration technology. Whenever trying to choose the right filter for use within your household always opt for a certified product.

All IWE’s household water filters carry the correct certifications for domestic use.

For the majority of UK residents a standard activated carbon water filter should be more than sufficient for most filtration jobs, however certain pollutants such as perchlorate if found to be present within the water supply then a standard carbon filter wont do. Below is a list of the most common cartridge filters and their purpose :

Activated Carbon Filter

How it operates :

Positively charged as well as extremely absorbent carbon within the filter draws in and contains many impurities.

Eradicates :

Bad tastes and odours, including chlorine Can substantially reduce many hazardous contaminants.

Reverse Osmosis

How it operates :

A semipermeable membrane divides impurities from water.


The majority of contaminants, including parasites such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia; heavy metals and other contaminants.

Water Softener

How it operates :

Softens hard water by exchanging minerals.


Calcium and magnesium, that can form mineral debris within plumbing and fittings.

Ultraviolet Disinfection

How it operates :

Ultraviolet light eliminates bacteria as well as various other microorganisms.


Bacteria and parasites.

Modern technology has improved ceramic water filters over the past decade many times over. One pioneering method in use today in ceramic water filters is the use of silver which is impregnated into the outer shell of the filter, giving it the ability to be able to trap bacteria as small as .22 of a micron.

A modern ceramic filter is very effective in filtering bacteria out of feed water, although there are a very small amount of microorganisms that are harmful to humans if consumed, the ones that are, if consumed can be fatal. The three basic groups are viruses, bacteria and protozoa.

Bacteria commonly maintain there characteristic shape. thankfully harmful bacteria such as shingella and salmonella are few in numbers, therefore reliance is placed on bacteriological testing for the testing of such organisms.

coliform bacteria such as ecoli are fairly simple to isolate as are present within the faeces all humans and warm blooded animals and as such appear in large numbers within sewage treatment plants. These kinds of bacteria can easily be filtered with the use of ceramic filtration.

Viruses can be filtered from feed water through adsorption by means of filtering out particles that viruses have attached themselves to.

Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia, potentially causes the greatest health risk than all the other microorganisms as they are resistant to chlorine, heating, freezing and also UV light. However because of the relatively large size of the cysts both these organisms can easily be eradicated with the use of a ceramic water filter

Additional filter media can also be added within the shell of a ceramic filter giving it the ability to be able to remove other contaminants chemicals, lead and bad smalls and odours. Ceramic water filters can offer an economical means of producing clean potable water.

Numerous water filter technological innovations extend constrained biological sources with regard to drinking standard water the quality of water fed into our homes and industries has declined over many years. This specific decrease in water quality comes via the excessive demand from customers on an already strained water source. Several concepts involving water filtration are employed within many purposes in order to increase the quality of the feed water.

Carbon Water Filters

The filtration of water through a carbon filter system is mainly utilised for final treatment and is recognised as having the best aesthetic quality correction. Activated carbon is very successful with lowering quantities of chlorine or various other halogens away from the water stream. The majority of carbon filters are established together with automated backwash controls designed to raise as well as clean the bed and also suppress organic growth. Carbon filters ought to be swapped occasionally to guarantee correct process performance. In the majority of instances, this approach will protect against any kind of bacterial development issues.

Neutralising Water Filters

Mainly used in the adjustment of Ph balance where acid water conditions are present. Acidic water can lead to damage of pipework, lead and copper which can leech into the water. These kinds of filters are usually implemented downward of the flow using an automatic backwash control head to help material solidifying. They may also be implemented upwards of the flow without the need for a control valve.


Coagulation is a two-step procedure extensively employed for filtration of colloidal as well as suspended matter throughout the water, which usually will be apparent in most instances. This type of matter when left to stand ill not settle to the bottom and wont pass through most types of other filters. The 2 step process firstly consists of adjusting the pH through chemicals initially before filtration can commence. With the introduction of a coagulant the particulate will bond together allowing it to be filtered. The best method for filtration of the coagulant will depend on system size and flow rates. At Industrial Water Equipment we will be able to best advise what filtration method would best suit your particular needs.

Screen Water Filters

Screen water filters are finished in either plastic, bronze, stainless steel or cast iron. This type of water filter is available with a variety of screen sizes ranging from 60 to 1,000, sizes relate to the tightness of the mesh weave and also the size of the particulate that the filter can eliminate. The majority of screen water filters possess a drain or blow-off ability in order to clear solids out of the filter, by making use of a straightforward ball valve or an electronic timer and solenoid valve. Screen filters tend to be employed in main water supply systems, wells and surface water systems in the function of removing waste debris. Screen water filters are capable of filtering fragments of pipe or iron, large particle debris, shells & sand particles. This particular form of water filtration is most effective at filtration of large material substances.

Oxidising Water Filters

Oxidation may well happen in a number of possibilities such as chemical substance treatment. The usage of oxidising water filters is popular for the purpose of wiping out the the majority of challenges found within well applications. Iron, manganese and hydrogen sulfide are regarded as some of the most typical issues with well water.

Another manner of oxidation treatment ion is actually ozone. Whenever oxygen is flushed via a chamber and charged with an electric current it turns into ozone. When used this kind of method is highly effective. Ozone treatment should be implemented in conjunction with a vented retention tank followed by filtration of the water.

Manganese greensand filters are frequently employed. This particular medium needs a regeneration cycle implementing a chemical substance potassium permanganate. They are typically intended to function along with a control valve with a regenerant draw functionality. Typically the potassium is added into a feeder dry. The feeders should have a control float alone with an automatic control valve to obtain the water required in order to break down the substance. This kind of technique has standard durations of regeneration, which usually involve a initial backwash. That will certainly support in the elimination of any kind of foreign matter or particles. Continuous feeds are typically used within industrial applications. This process is achieved by using a holding tank incorporating potassium permanganate and feeding the chemical into the stream prior to the filtration.

Clarifying Water Filters

Clarifying water filters widely made use of with regard to turbidity.The appropriate options of water filter design is based mostly on the flow rate. Each filter will require correct sizing to requirements for flow rates to be able to avoid seepage or blow-through coming from over-running the actual system. Be certain to have an understanding of servicing arrangements of every cartridge type as well as that appropriate water flow is obtainable in order to support the necessary backwash. Avoidable deficiencies frequently originate from system neglect or even incorrect flow-rate accessibility.

Just what germs lie in wait within water from your tap?

The likely response to the question has sparked an incredible number of people to acquire point-of-use and point-of-entry water filters as a pre-emptive solution. However, these kinds of products depend greatly on water utilities to take out the vast majority of, if not every, toxin that presently is a health hazard. This information presents a broad summary of E. coli and water along with existing decontamination devices.

Whenever health issues occur though E. coli contamination, many people frequently consider food poisoning as being the culprit. Consumption of E. coli tainted animal meat or even dairy has experienced vast media coverage in the last 20 years, particularly when mass breakouts take place. Consuming fast-food, Going swimming within contaminated ponds and beach locations has resulted in E. coli outbreaks over the years.

E. coli isn’t associated with drinking water in a large number of peoples opinions. At times, counties will suggest people to boil their own tap water as the vast majority of in-home filtration systems can not separate out E. coli from drinking water, an elevated chance of contamination is because of stormwater runoff, groundwater, wetlands or water ways which flow in to a town or city’s water system. An episode in 1998 sickened 157 people when deer and elk waste material seeped into a Wyoming aquifier that supplied the town’s waters. The event underlined treatment issues within small-scale water systems – the water within this areas system was unchlorinated.

E. coli creates a danger within every untreated water system, particularly water wells. In certain rural areas, occupants depend on well water for drinking, and the results of consuming untreated water could be disastrous. In 1999, 921 people that went to the Washington County Fair in New York experienced diarrhoea & two people died. Even though a lot of the fair had been provided with chlorinated water, a small area of the fairground had used water from a well in order to boil food and also produce ice cubes. Environmental cultures from this well uncovered excessive amounts of coliforms along with E. coli.

E. coli is particularly perilous to children, the aged and immuno-suppressed, however even the healthiest persons are not able to defend against this pathogen. Whilst nearly all strains of E. coli are undamaging and reside in the digestive tract of healthy human beings as well as animals, the strain O157:H7 yields a formidable toxin and may bring about stomach cramping and extreme diarrhoea that may contain blood. In rare cases, people could develop emolytic uremic syndrome, in which the red blood cells are destroyed and also the kidneys fail.

With the responsibility of public health and wellbeing on the shoulders of cash-strapped public water treatment companies they themselves must make use of cost-efficient and not necessarily the best observation and disinfection systems to satisfy policies. Typical observation systems incorporate culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, fluorescence in-situ hybridisation/confocal laser scanning microscopy and also polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

EPA-approved analysis options for coliform assay are publicised within the Federal government Register under the Total Coliform Rule. In order to conform to the provisions of the rule, public water systems have got to perform analysis employing one of a number of analytical techniques.

The vast majority of water quality monitoring consists of a multistep procedure that cannot be performed from the actual site from which the water samples are obtained. Instead, samples need to be sent to a research laboratory to go through analysis which consists of culturing bacteria within an incubator or moving water through a membrane layer filtration system, to discover if a particular bacteria such as E. coli and other detrimental faecal coliform can be found within the water sample. This process usually takes between six to thirty hrs.

Currently small companies and universities are developing Biosensors for water analysis. Biosensors diagnose live as well as dead microorganisms, fungus and viruses. Many make use of numerous sensors to discover minute levels of biological materials like protein or DNA in order to identify a multitude of pathogens. Durable, resilient as well as dependable new technology biosensors offer precise results in much less time than both lab and field testings.

There are a number of treatment procedures on the market to clear out contaminants from public water including flocculation/sedimentation, filtration, ion exchange, adsorption as well as disinfection, applied on it’s own or in conjunction. Under everyone of these kinds of procedures are various solutions implementing unique technologies. As an example, disinfection of water might be obtained both by chlorination and ozonation. Purification elevates the performance of disinfection by simply eliminating leftover particles within the water supply. As a result of the large selection of filtration systems, treatment owners make buying judgements structured on greatest effectiveness at minimum expense, causing this to be a best value marketplace. Decisions relating to treatment are also formed in a system by system basis due to sizing, location of plant and location of the supply water. Groundwater or surface water also has an effect on a treatment method system’s requirements. Polices regulating water systems furthermore pressure customers to decide on technologies that meet current water treatment regulation.

For anyone still concerned about E. coli, Environmental protection agencies recommend boiling drinking water prior to consumption. Presently there are several products upon the market today professing to successfully eliminate E. coli and other pollutants from household water, making use of various kinds of filter technology.

The protection of the country’s drinking water remains an issue, and current laws in addition to existing and appearing technologies commit to maintain our drinking water essentially disease free.


The debate regarding the quality of our drinking water is a topic that has reached new levels of sensitivity. As the population of the world grows so does the waste generation & subsequently the ever increasing amount of contaminants that find there way into our water supply. It is widely recognised that known chemicals such as lead, arsenic and certain byproducts from cleaning agents will cause adverse health effects, however many new contaminants are being discovered within our water supply, the health effects of many as yet are still unknown.

Household water supply

Homeowners are concerned on the subject of the suitability of their own tap drinking water for day-to-day potable use. Even though drinking water quality is stringently supervised in order to make sure the necessary level of quality standard is achieved, open concern with contaminant draining from water distribution systems seems to have recently been considerably increased. Fearing that drinking water condition might possibly be lost whenever it gets to residential end users residences, a large number of individuals are acquiring preventive steps by the treatment of their water supplies within the home with point of use or point of entry water filter systems. This trend is starting up substantial possibilities with regard to the domestic water filter industry. Prior to new developments in water filter technology, homeowners that wished to purchase home water filter products were limited to just a few basic choices. The most commonly used filtration devices typically tend to be a POE water softeners which have the ability to reduce the hardness in water by removing calcium and magnesium minerals. Although effective for softening water they are unable to filter contamination from biological or organic contaminants.

Membrane Treatment

The marketplace has altered considerably ever since the introduction of membrane layer water treatment solutions within the household. Presently, there are countless water treatment providers contending within the household marketplace, each of them attempting to gain the advantage within this highly competitive and growing market. The membrane filtration market is currently growing at an ever increasing rate. Reverse Osmosis filtration units are coming to the forefront as a very effective method in reducing a wide variety of contaminants such as Ions and metals within water, reverse osmosis water filters are also more energy efficient when compared with electronic distillation filter units.

With the growing demand for residential water filter units there has been a significant enhancement within the economy of manufacturing companies allowing for investment into producing better quality filters and newer technologies such as ultrafiltration along with residential units becoming more affordable. The latest ‘new generation’ household membrane layer water treatment filters intended for POE assembly have supplied a method for low recovery rates. Rather than filtering water at certain taps, these kinds of innovative POE membrane layer technologies present the additional advantage of filtering incoming water for usage all through the home.

Industrial Water Equipment now have a range of domestic membrane reverse osmosis drinking water units available from the reverse osmosis section of our website.

Water Filtration is broadly recognised as a means of providing high quality water. As easy as this seems, the actual filtration media along with the way it operates is much more complicated. Generally, water filtration media is categorised as depth filtration systems or screen filter systems. Depth filters hold on to particles within the matrix of the filter media as well as across the path of water flow. In comparison, screen filtration systems (also referred to as membrane filters) keep contaminants on the outer lining of the filter systems.

Whilst depth filter systems tend to be graded depending on the size of the actual contaminants they retain, membrane layer filter systems are generally graded via pore sizing’s.

Filter Media Materials

Filtration media is constructed from organic materials including cotton as well as wood pulp as well as out of artificial polymers like polypropylene. In-organic substances like glass aluminium oxide and silver.

Water Analysis Filter systems

Filter systems made use of in water analysis (blank) typically are employed for eliminating particles, recording and counting particular impurities or even for examining microbes. Normally, labs make use of water filtration media in spherical forms in linen varieties like filtration papers or even membranes or as enclosed devices like syringe filtration systems and also capsules.

Filter Papers

Cellulose and glass micro fibre media tend to be employed for fundamental qualitative and quantitative measurements. This standard process would be to take a filtration paper, calculate it’s base line weight, and then filter a particular volume of fluid through this, dried out the filtration paper and then calculate the actual weight again. Total suspended solids research is performed via a comparable technique.


Membranes are actually screen filter systems that get rid of contaminants usually within the sub-micron range. These are employed with regard to water filtration and enumeration of particles as well as microorganisms. Membranes put to use within laboratory work examination tend to be cast membranes. In water study membranes tend to be made use of for recording and examining microorganisms upon the surface area of the filtration system.

Enclosed Units

Filtration media tend to be enclosed within a plastic shroud making them ready to use filters. Good examples of enclosed water filtration units are syringe water filtration systems, capsule filter systems as well as filter cups. Enclosed water filtration products are extensively employed within the healthcare and pharmaceutical sector. These kinds of water filter systems are simpler to make use of as well as decrease cross-contamination involving samples. Capsule purification products are extensively employed whenever obtaining ground water samples.


Water Filtration techniques are extensively employed within water analysis laboratories. Filtration papers tend to be employed in total suspended solids research. Membranes tend to be employed as matrices with regard to collecting and enumerating organisms. Encapsulated water filtration products provide the efficiency as well as simplicity for the purpose of sample preparing prior to analysis.


Prior to the removal of chlorine or any of its by products initially the feed water would have to be passed though a pre filtration process, in this case the use of a GAC Granular Activated Carbon Filter would be the an ideal choice. A GAC filter would have the ability to be able to remove contaminants such as chlorine and chloramine as well as other chemicals.

Water Conditioning

The water conditioning process consists of 2 columns of resin that will soften water by means of the removal of it’s hardness. A column of cation resin soaks in calcium as well as magnesium ions and then exchanges them with sodium chloride. The end result in this process is soft water. Considering that the resin will need to be regenerated occasionally, you would have to make sure the model is fitted with an automated backwash – regeneration control device.

Particle Filters

Sediment filtration capsules eliminate any kind of suspended solids which might be twenty microns or greater. For additional refinement, the feed water is additionally filtered through a second heavy-duty sediment filtration system, which in turn takes away all suspended solids all the way down to 5 microns in volume.

Pressure Pump

The subsequent step is designed for the feed water to circulate throughout a high pressure pump. This pump is implemented to accomplish the appropriate pressure, volume and flow in order for the water to be sent to the Reverse Osmosis units in the appropriate condition.

Reverse Osmosis Membranes

Reverse Osmosis filters are the most important part of the pre-filtration process. The main objective of the Reverse osmosis membranes will be to eliminate close to ninety-eight % of the total dissolved solids (TDS) which might be within the actual feed water. The amount of membranes within a reverse osmosis filtration system will directly determine the permeate and / or product water output of the unit. Its crucial to safeguard the membranes with the right pre-filtration levels.

Storage Tanks

The filtered water produced throughout this process will be able to be stored within a water storage tank, considering that we are operating with drinking water, each water storage tank will need to be manufactured from approved polyethylene materials. The tanks will need to be complete with a sealed manway designed for sanitary purposes. Generally, these types of water tanks will include an air-filter mounted on the top in order to avoid ambient contaminants from going into the tank.

Post Filtration

Although the water within the tanks is incredibly pure what we don’t know is how long it has been there. In order to make sure the water is fresh prior to its distribution it will need to go through a, carbon block and sub-micron post filter in order to enhance water taste as well as eradicate all particles.


In order to keep the processed water completely free from bacteria and also to maintain its freshness it will need to be sterilised with the use of ultra violet before use. The filtration process will be able to eliminate all bacteria, spores and cysts that might be present. The primary cycle within Ultra-violet treatment is known as a continual cycle disinfection procedure. This allows water within the storage tanks to constantly pass through the Ultra-violet filter and return back to the water storage tank. This prevents bacteria from developing inside the storage tanks.

It is without doubt that modern purification and water filter techniques have been able to create a highly refined 100% pure drinking water though the stages described above, in order to generate a great quality end product an understanding the process involved is crucial.

The most problematic compounds known to be found within well water are Iron and Hydrogen Sulfide. Bad taste and odour due to hydrogen and rusty pipework because of the iron content within the water are two of the most common ailments

Hydrogen Removal

Whenever hydrogen sulfide gas is present within well water, a process know as pressured oxidation is used in order to eliminate the hydrogen. Within a pressurised oxidation system, oxygen is released in the water via an inductor. The system pressure is raised for the best possible air adsorption. Water behaves just like a sponge and soaks up the high pressure air. The high pressure water that contains immersed air and hydrogen gas start to react. Considering that the response time isn’t instantaneous and it is straight influenced by the parts per million of the hydrogen sulfide contact volume is needed. The sum of contact volume depends upon the need as well as the hydrogen sulfide gas in parts per million from the system.

The inductor will be able to generate far more air than is actually necessary. Within the 1st treatment tank, an air discharge volume control exhausts the unnecessary air and sustains a outlined level of water. Since the reaction happens within the water, the actual gas left is either nitrogen or oxygen. This gas will be removed from the water when it reaches the tap.

A significant characteristic in the pressurised oxidation method is that whenever water departs the treatment tank it will still have residual amounts of oxygen within it. In the event the system water demand were to increase to a degree more than expected and hydrogen sulfide is found at the tap, by simply switching off the water a couple of moments, the odour is going to dissipate. That is because of the fact the water features a sufficient amount of oxygen in order to react with the hydrogen sulfide gas.

Iron Removal

There are many current procedures available on the market employed to eliminate soluble and insoluble iron within the water. For instance, sand / multimedia water filtration, can be used to take out insoluble iron however it cannot eliminate the soluble iron unless of course a potassium permanganate or other oxidant is put to use as a regenerant. Ion exchange water softeners likewise be employed in the event the water calls for softening in addition to iron removal.

Oxidation has long been established successful with getting rid of each form of iron. You will find a few types of oxidation methods – chlorination, ozonation and aeration. Out of these three methods aeration is regarded as the most economical and also calls for no chemicals. Atmospheric aeration because of the very low adsorption rate demands substantial retention tanks and lead to higher costs. Therefore, the most efficient as well as cost-effective solution to eradicate each form of iron is via the usage of pressurised oxidation. Exactly the same pressurised oxidation technique employed to remove hydrogen sulfide gas can be employed to deal with each form of iron. Whenever the iron content level surpasses 1 parts per million, media filter tanks should be added in along with a treated water backwash designed into the system.

Even though pressurised oxidisation techniques had been originally produced for hydrogen sulfide elimination, it’s been effortlessly transformed into an iron removal method with the inclusion of media filters.

Industrial Water Equipment have a vast library of information on the most popular water treatment processes.

Please take some time to view our library. If you cannot find the correct information you are looking for then please get in touch.

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